The cereals grown in the Czech Republic are wheat, rye, barley, oat, maize, millet, buckwheat and amaranth. These are the seeds of annual cultivated crops. For the flour production and other mill products especially wheat, spelt, rye, maize, and buckwheat are used. However, cereals also serve as fodder for livestock.

The structure of the cereal grain

The bran, that means particular layers of cells, contains mainly fibre. Wheat, rye, and maize which have thinner seed vessel content less fibre. Cereals containing more fibre are the ones with a well-developed seed vessel: barley and oat. The bran contains also vitamins B, mainly thiamine, riboflavin, nicotinic acid and pantothenic acid.
The aleurone layer contains most proteins, however, their biological value is relatively low.
The endosperm contains mainly farina in the form of farina grains. These grains are different in shape according to the cereal type. The sprout (seed) presents the smallest part of the grain- only about 2%, in maize about 10%. The essentials of a future plant are already formed in it. The sprout contains proteins and most of the lipids in the grain as well as vitamin E.


– represents the oldest cultivated cereal used for bread production all over the world. For its high content of gluten it is very suitable for baking. Tough gluten is characteristic of hard wheat which is therefore not suitable for baking bread. It is tough gluten that causes small volume of bread. It is mainly used for producing pasta.
Spelt contains more proteins, lipids, minerals, vitamins and essential amino acids than common wheat. There is also a higher content of gluten, but its quality is not very good. It can therefore be used for muesli or pasta production. Its green, unripe grains may be roasted. Resistance to unfavorable climatic conditions, diseases and pests is characteristic of it. It is suitable for organic agriculture owing to the ease of fertilization and protection against harmful factors.


– Next to wheat, rye is the grain that is used most to product flour. It is grown on less fertile or sandy soils. In the food industry rye is used to produce some kinds of bread, alcohol or coffee substitute.


- is an artificially created cross of wheat and rye. It´s mainly used as fodder.


- along with wheat, it belongs to the oldest cereals. In food industry it is used as peeled barley or for health food production. Malted barley is essential for brewery.


- belongs to the youngest cultivated cereals.


– Roma people supposedly brought maize to our country form Turkey and Romania in the 17th century. In the food industry corn flour and farina are used, e.g. to product corn flakes.


- belongs to the oldest cultivated farming products. In the food industry peeled grains are used. The disadvantage of millet is its non-uniform ripening - it is necessary to dry it.


– is an old cultivated crop originating in Himalaya. It was probably brought to Europe during the Mongol and Tartar expansion. Buckwheat is used to produce flour and semolina. It is suitable for the gluten-free diet.


- Amaranth can be eaten directly. It is suitable for the gluten-free diet. Amaranth seeds are used mainly for various bread products, pasta, baby formula or instant drinks.